May 18, 2004
INTERNATIONAL SPY MUSEUM OPENS NEW
EXHIBIT ON TERROR IN AMERICA
Conference in Washington, DC to Explore
Privacy, Open Government, and Democracy
WASHINGTON, DC - Just in time for the EPIC policy conference
"Freedom 2.0," the International Spy Museum opens a new exhibit that
provides unprecedented insight into terror on American soil from the
Revolutionary War to the War on Terrorism.
Admission to a special showing at the Spy Museum on Friday, May 21
is for attendees at "Freedom 2.0: Distributed Democracy, Dialogue
for a Connected World." The conference is open to the public.
Registration information is available at http://www.epic04.org/.
Registration will begin Thursday, May 20 at 3 pm at the Washington Club
on Dupont Circle.
"The Enemy Within: Terror in America - 1776 to Today," the only
museum exhibit to provide historic perspective on acts of terror
that have taken place on American soil, opened May 13, 2004 as the
International Spy Museum's first special exhibit.
"The Enemy Within" will reveal nine major events and periods in U.S.
History when Americans were threatened by enemies within its
borders: depicting how the government and public responded,
illustrating the corresponding evolution of U.S. counterintelligence
and homeland security efforts, and examining the challenge of
securing the nation without compromising the civil liberties upon
which it was founded.
Marc Rotenberg, President of EPIC, said, "Attendees at Freedom 2.0
will have an extraordinary opportunity to view this timely and
important exhibit. To understand the threats to our nation --
both from acts of terrorism and the loss of liberty -- we should
look closely at how the United States has responded during
similar periods in the past."
EPIC has been among the leading civil liberties organizations in
the United States calling for a careful examination of the
government's proposals to expand police powers after 9-11. EPIC
has also successfully pursued several Freedom of Information Act
cases, including one against the Attorney General John Ashcroft
and another against the former director of the Total Information
Awareness program John Poindexter.
"Public understanding of the nature of terrorism and the actions
of government is a critical requirement for an effective response
to future threats of terrorism. EPIC's open government requests
combined with the Spy Museum's extraordinary exhibit help promote
a vital public debate," said Rotenberg.
The following dramatic moments in U.S. history - all frightening,
and destabilizing events - represent times when Americans have felt
threatened within their own borders. Each precipitated legislation
and/or new counterintelligence measures and provoked debate about
protecting both citizens and civil liberties.
- The City of Washington Captured and the White House Burned -
August 24, 1814
During the War of 1812, the City of Washington was captured and the
White House, Capitol, and other major public buildings were torched
by British troops-aided by information provided by a few Americans.
- Manhattan Hit by Massive Explosions in New York Harbor - July 30,
German secret agents, aided by American collaborators, blew up a
munitions depot in New York Harbor showering Manhattan and the
Statue of Liberty with shrapnel and debris. Acts of German sabotage
on America soil like this contributed to America 's entry into World
War I, and inspired the passage of the 1918 Espionage Act, still in
effect today, and the growth of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
- Anarchist Bombs Target American Leaders - June 2, 1919
When the home of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer was bombed by
an anarchist and plots for more bombings were revealed, both the
public and the government clamored for tighter law enforcement and
more restrictive legislation for immigrants, resulting in the
roundups, deportations, and public outrage associated with the now
infamous "Palmer Raids."
- 30,000 Ku Klux Klan Members Parade Down Pennsylvania Avenue -
August 8, 1925
The nation's oldest hate group, Ku Klux Klan, has risen three times
in the nation's history. Each time, the group changed, evolving from
small vigilante groups inflicting terror on former slaves after the
Civil War; to a politically powerful organization of four-million
members in the 1920s expanding its targets to include immigrants,
Jews, and Catholics; to the violent groups of the1960s attacking
African Americans and civil rights workers. Today, a diminished Klan
is only one among many white supremacist groups.
- American Helps Japanese Pilot Terrorize Hawaiian Island After
Pearl Harbor Attack - December 7, 1941
A Japanese pilot returning from the Pearl Harbor attack,
crash-landed on the Hawaiian Island of Nihau, and with the support
of a Japanese American, took hostages and terrorized the community.
This incident, little remembered today, perpetuated fears about
Japanese Americans-fears that ultimately led to the unprecedented
incarceration of thousands.
- Kremlin Launches one of the first Cold War Attacks against the
U.S. - April 1945
Near the end of WWII, the Kremlin harshly condemned American
Communists for softening their commitment to a worldwide communist
revolution. The Communist Party of the United States snapped to
action, ousting its moderate leader and reestablishing itself as a
highly militant and subversive organization-and fueling America 's
fears that American Communists would become Stalin's tool for the
overthrow of the U.S. government.
- Radical Group Explodes Bomb in the U.S. Capitol - March 1, 1971
Protests over the war in Vietnam War and civil rights turned violent
during the "days of rage," and extremist groups, such as the Weather
Underground and the Black Liberation Army, took action.
- Massive Bomb Destroys the Federal Building in Oklahoma City -
April 19, 1995
The Oklahoma City bombing, the deadliest act of terrorism on U.S.
soil in the 20th century, awakened Americans to the threats posed
by domestic extremists-especially the virulently anti-government
- Beyond September 11th - Terrorism Today
In the aftermath of September 11, 2001 initiatives by the U.S.
government to root out terrorists elements in the country have
irrevocably changed the lives of Americans.
The Enemy Within will support these stories with historic
photographs, themed environments, interactive displays, film,
artifacts, and video. Exhibit highlights include:
- A timeline that traces over 80 acts of terror that have taken
place in the U.S. from the 1776 to today, including the
Revolutionary War plot to kidnap George Washington, the events of
Bloody Kansas prior to the Civil War, John Brown's Raid on Harpers
Ferry, 1960s Church bombings in the South, and the attacks on the
World Trade Center in 2001.
- Former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's Personal Telephone -
used during the 1960s by Hoover to communicate with the President
and key leaders.
- APL Badge and ID Card (1917) - carried by Operatives of the
American Protective League (APL) who spied on their fellow Americans
on behalf of the U.S. Justice Department during World War I.
- Anarchist Globe Bomb (c. 1886 ) - presented as evidence in
the trial of the men tried in connection with the Chicago Haymarket
- Ritual Klan Red Robe (c. 1965) - worn by the Klan "Kladd," the
elected Klan officer who presided over the secret rituals and
ceremonies of the Ku Klux Klan.
- Klan "Business Cards" - ominous warnings to innocent Americans
that their every move was being "watched."
- Weather Underground Video Presentation - featuring an exclusive
interview with ex-Weather Underground member Bernadine Dohrn, filmed
for the exhibition.
- Fragments of the Planes that hit the World Trade Center (2001) -
recovered following the attacks on September 11, 2001 and used as
evidence by the FBI in their ensuing investigation.
- Under Siege - a powerful eight-minute film exploring the
terrorist threat today, initiatives by the U.S. government to root
out terrorists elements in the U.S., the balance between civil
liberties and national security, and the impact on the daily lives
of Americans. It features a range of interviews with leading
thinkers, including Daniel Pipes, Director of the Middle East Forum,
Akbar S. Ahmed, the Ibn Khaldun Chair of Islamic Studies and
Professor of International Relations at American University in
Washington, DC Steven Emerson, terrorist expert and investigator,
and Morris Dees, co-founder and Chief Trial Counsel of the
Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Visitor Polling Station - this unique computer interactive
provides visitors the opportunity to express their own opinions on
questions raised in the exhibition about how the nation has
responded to the historical events presented. The questions were
developed in consultation with The Gallup Organization, and
additional historical questions enable visitors to see how Americans
responded to similar questions posed by The Gallup Poll at that time
The International Spy Museum, the only public institution in the
world dedicated to presenting the world history of espionage,
features the largest permanent collection of international
spy-related artifacts on public display. Through interactive
exhibits with state-of-the-art audiovisual effects, film, and
hands-on components, the Museum traces the evolution of espionage
through the people who practiced the profession and it provides a
context for guests to better interpret the role intelligence plays
in current events.
"Freedom 2:0: Distributed Democracy, Dialogue for a Connected World"
will bring together civil society leaders, academic experts, and
government decision makers to explore the critical challenges facing
the Information Society - the protection of privacy, the
transparency of government, the promotion of the Public Voice, and
the need to assess the reliability of electronic voting systems.
Speakers include Senator Patrick Leahy, who will receive the EPIC
Champion of Freedom Award, Rep. Rush Holt, who has introduced
legislation to improve the reliability of electronic voting systems,
Ambassador David Gross, who leads the US delegation to the United
Nations World Summit on the Information Society, Vinton G. Cerf,
Chairman of ICANN, Nuala O'Connor Kelley, Chief Privacy Officer for
the Department of Homeland Security, and Giovanni Buttarelli,
Secretary General of the Italian Data Protection Authority.
The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) is hosting the
Freedom 2.0 conference. EPIC is a public interest research center in
Washington, D.C. established in 1994 to focus public attention on
emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First
Amendment, and constitutional values. Well regarded for its
innovative and effective advocacy, EPIC is celebrating its tenth
anniversary this year.
The Freedom 2.0 conference is open to the public. Registration
information is available at http://www.epic04.org/. Registration
will begin Thursday, May 20 at 3 pm at the Washington Club on Dupont
Media Relations Manager
International Spy Museum
EPIC Conference office (for registration information)
http://www.epic04.org/ (Conference homepage)
Marc Rotenberg, EPIC President
http://www.epic.org/ (EPIC homepage)